Ancient Mesopotamia Timeline

The Mesopotamia civilization began during 4000 BC when small groups of people started coming in and living together. They started with the invention of agriculture and irrigation.

Gradually, with the growth in population and agricultural activities, the necessity of taxation and redistribution of food supplies was felt. The situation led to the development of Government and a system with law and order.

Numerous inventions and discoveries took place, and this small area with a less population turned into one of the largest and most significant civilizations in history. 

The drastic change from a small group to the largest civilization did not take place overnight. Instead, it took almost more than 30 decades.

The gradual upgrade and advancement of Mesopotamia are explained in this article based on their respective timeline with some details.

Ancient Mesopotamia Timeline

5000 B.C.E

Cradle of Civilization

Mesopotamia Geography

The small area began turning into a civilization during 5000 BC, where a small group of people started gathering. They began to work and live together. They also discovered agriculture, irrigation, and animal husbandry as ...

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4000 B.C.E

Establishment of influential cities and states

Sumerians, the creators of Mesopotamia, established influential cities and states in this civilization during 4000 BC. Besides cities and states, numerous temples along with their respective gods were established by the Sumerians. Ziggurat is one ...

Read moreEstablishment of influential cities and states

3300 B.C.E

The invention of the earliest writing system

cuneiform mesopotamia writing

Cuneiform, one of the earliest writing system, was invented by the Sumerians during 3300 BC. It is also known as Sumer- Akkadian Cuneiform which was first created in a pictographic form. It was primarily developed ...

Read moreThe invention of the earliest writing system

3200 B.C.E

The invention of Wheels

Wheels-the-most-significant-invention

The wheels were invented during 3200 BC. It was primarily developed to give a shape to clay pots and pottery designing. Later, it was used to move the chariots and wheel-carts. The first wheel invented ...

Read moreThe invention of Wheels

2700-2500 B.C.E

Rule of King Gilgamesh

King Gilgamesh Mesopotamia

Gilgamesh was the famous King of Uruk. He ruled over the Uruk city for about 126 years from 2700 BC to 2500 BC.  He was known as an ancient hero and a legendary warrior King ...

Read moreRule of King Gilgamesh

2400 B.C.E

Sumerian language replaced by Akkadian language

Akkadian language

The Sumerians lived in the Southern part of Mesopotamia whereas the Akkadians lived in the North. Both had their languages despite similarities in culture and Government. The Sumerians ruled over most of Mesopotamia, so initially, ...

Read moreSumerian language replaced by Akkadian language

2330 B.C.E

Akkadians took over Sumerians

The Mesopotamia Civilization ruled over by the Sumerians before 2330 BC. People followed the rules and system made by the Sumerians. The Akkadians took over the civilization during 2330 BC. They established the Akkadian Empire ...

Read moreAkkadians took over Sumerians

2255- 2218 B.C.E

Rule of King Naram-Sin of Akkad

Rule of King Naram-Sin of Akkad

Naram-Sin was the ruler of the Akkadian Empire. He ruled the empire for over 40 years from 2255 BC to 2218 BC. During his reign, he claimed divinity for himself and took the title of ...

Read moreRule of King Naram-Sin of Akkad

2100 B.C.E

Power of Sumerians over Mesopotamia once again

The Sumerians gained power over the Akkadian Empire during 2100 BC. They had gotten their ability back after almost 230 years and also rebuilt the city of Ur.

2000 -1900 B.C.E

Changes in power over city of Ur

city of Ur

The Elamites captured the city of Ur from the Sumerians during 2000 BC. They ruled over the city for about 100 years. The city of Ur was again taken over by the Assyrians from the ...

Read moreChanges in power over city of Ur

1792 B.C.E

Babylonians took over Mesopotamia

Babylonia is formed after the fall of the Akkadian Empire. It was one of the Akkadian speaking countries located in the South, and another was Assyria in the North. The King of this nation was ...

Read moreBabylonians took over Mesopotamia

1781 B.C.E

Death of Assyrian King: 1781 BC

King Shamshi-Adad

King Shamshi-Adad, who was one of the most influential rulers of the Assyrian Empire, died in 1781 BC. He expanded the empire towards the northern part. The empire started to weaken with the demise of ...

Read moreDeath of Assyrian King: 1781 BC

1750 B.C.E

Death of Babylonian King Hammurabi

Babylonian King Hammurabi

King Hammurabi, the famous King of Babylonia, died in 1750 BC. He was the 6th King of the first Babylonian dynasty who over the empire from 1792 BC to 1750 BC. The empire was weakened ...

Read moreDeath of Babylonian King Hammurabi

1595 - 1360 B.C.E

Changes in power

Kassites mesopotamia

The Mesopotamia civilization was taken over by the Kassites after the fall of the Babylonian Empire. The Kassites took over the city of Babylon during 1595 BC. The Kassites ruled over the city for over ...

Read moreChanges in power

1250 B.C.E

The use of Iron weapons and chariot began

mesopotamia-Invention-Chariot

The Assyrians gained power over the Mesopotamia Civilization and set some rules and system according to them. They started using Iron weapons and chariots. These materials were highly used for the purpose of claiming rights ...

Read moreThe use of Iron weapons and chariot began

1225 - 709 B.C.E

Numerous changes take place in the Assyrian Empire

King Tiglath-Piliser III

The Assyrians captured Babylon during 1225 BC and the 2nd Assyrian Empire came under the rule of King Tiglath-Piliser I in 1155 BC.  The Assyrian Empire gained power during the reign of King Tiglath-Pilier I ...

Read moreNumerous changes take place in the Assyrian Empire

550 B.C.E

New rulers of Achaemenid Empire

Cyrus the Great

During 550 BC, a new ruler – Cyrus the Great rises to power and with him, there is a rise of a very new empire. The new empire is known as the Persian Empire. It ...

Read moreNew rulers of Achaemenid Empire

522 B.C.E

Division of Persian Empire

Darius the Great

Darius the Great became the King of Persia in 522 B.C.E. He then expanded the whole empire and divided the empire into numerous states. Every state was ruled by a governor famously known as satrap.

490 B.C.E

Greek took over the Persian Empire

After expanding and dividing the empire into many states. Darius the Great assigned one governor for each state. He then started attacking the Greeks during 490 BC. Unfortunately, he became unable to defeat them. It ...

Read moreGreek took over the Persian Empire

331 B.C.E

End of Persian Empire

The Persian Empire ended in 331 BC after numerous battles with Alexander. Darius tried taking over but lost three battles with Alexander. He was then murdered in 330 BC.

Conclusion:

The Mesopotamia Civilization is one of the oldest and largest civilizations in history. It ruled the world for over 30 decades. 

During its period, it went through numerous ups and downs. The major changes in civilization were the rulers. The civilization was ruled by numerous rulers forming numerous empires.

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Cite this article as: Richard Marrison, "Ancient Mesopotamia Timeline," in HistoryTen, April 2, 2020, https://historyten.com/mesopotamia/ancient-mesopotamia-timeline/.
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