The United Nations Independence war, initiated in 1775 and lasting till 1783, was waged by the Northern Britain colonies seeking political liberty from the Britain regime.
The revolution supported three significant arguments: taxation, the Quartering Act, and the Intolerable act against the oppressive attribute showcased by British King George III.
Patriots justified their acts as Britain violated their fundamental rights on keeping up with trade involvement in judicial trials in the colonies and British parliament.
Americans in thirteen colonies united to revolt against Britain, gained independence, and even established their constitution.
The American colonies enjoyed internal autonomy until the Stamp Act was passed in 1765, which imposed enormous taxation on colonies, leading to colonial protest.
The Boston Massacre, the burning of the Rhodes, the passage of the Tea Act, and the Townshend Act were significant events during the American revolution.
American patriots like Samuel Adams, John Adams, and Thomas Paine were the campaign pioneers who utilized biblical language to inform people who opposed to British yoke.
Causes of the American Revolution
The French and Britain underwent a seven-year-long battle for land in North America, popularly known as the French and the Indian war.
Britain turned the outcomes of the war in its favor, gaining possession of France’s North American territories.
East of the Mississippi River was under British colonies, left until King George ascended the British throne, hence starting to exert control over the colonies.
The war between France and Britain put the British Crown into massive debt. To overcome the losses, Britain imposed taxes on its colonies.
Furthermore, the expanding Britain territory also required financial support, so the Sugar Act, followed by the Stamp Act, was proposed in 1764.
Similarly, Britain established a series of acts, such as the Townshend Act in 1767, imposing heavy tariffs on tea, paint, glass, and paper imported to the colonies.
These actions provoked patriotic American colonists to revolt in protest of the extreme economical tormentation forced on them by the British Crown.
Resistance involved deliberate denial of paying the taxes, violence, and hostility in opposition to the British envoys.
In response to the waves of American objection, the British sent off their forces to Boston, Massachusetts, and proposed the Intolerable act in the hope of dividing the colonies.
On the contrary, the act led to the colonies’ unification to inaugurate the First Continental Congress around 1774.
The final battle marked its end on July 4, 1776, after Britain deployed more troops against colonies as they demanded the cancellation of the Intolerable Act.
Timeline of the revolution
The French and Indian war was fought in 1763, which was won by the joint efforts of the British and the American colonists.
Before the war, the colonists were used to practicing a higher degree of autonomy that eventually faded away.
Britain thrust huge excise on America due to increased revenue after the war.
The British Crown sanctioned acts like the Sugar Act and the Stamp Act that placed a tax on legal documents, newspapers, and any other forms of printed papers.
A wave of denial to pay taxes rose among American colonists.
In addition to the Stamp Act, Britain passed an additional set of acts known as the Townshend act in 1767 A.D, which enraged Americans to a greater extent.
Resistances in Boston and Massachusetts started, so Britain sent two military troops to Boston to take everything under control.
On March 5, 1770 A.D, the Boston Massacre took place as the British army units were harassed by Colonists, which eventually caused open firing killing around five colonists.
American colonists disguised themselves as Mohawk Indians dumping thousands of dollars with tea into the harbor at the anchor of board ships.
It was performed in response to the surge of taxes on tea due to the monopoly of the East Indian Company, and the event was known as the Boston Tea Party.
The British parliament validated four significant regulations, “Intolerable Acts,” including the Boston Port Act, Quartering Act, Administration of Justice Act, and Massachusetts Government Act in 1744 A.D.
Likewise, regarding the Intolerable act, fifty-six delegates assembled to organize the First Continental Congress in Philadelphia.
The panel called upon Britain to eliminate the Intolerable act; however, Britain sent more troops to America.
Paul Revere, an American patriot, better known as the Boston silversmith, warned about approaching British armies in Lexington on April 18, 1775 A.D.
Around 77 American minutemen met the British forces in Lexington, where a clash broke out, causing eighteen American deaths.
But British troops had to retreat to Boston due to a reduction in arms and ammunition.
The Battle of Bunker Hill caused the moral triumph of Americans even though the British won the battle with the loss of almost forty percent of its soldiers.
The Congress voted for independence and adopted the “Declaration of Independence” policy in July 1776, which Thomas Jefferson wrote.
George Washington and his fellow men were forced to leave New York and eventually struck back on Christmas night, crossing the Delaware River.
They attacked the Hessian fort releasing about 900 prisoners.
British commander General John Burgoyne successfully captured Ticonderoga Fort in New York in 1777. However, he had to surrender at Saratoga.
George Washington and his men took shelters at the Forge Valley northwest of Philadelphia under British control, suffering through hunger, cold, and diseases.
Despite the difficulties, Americans emerged as a potent troop in 1778.
After the victory at Saratoga, Americans allied with France, seeking military and financial aid to prepare their fleets to enter the war against Britain.
The Articles of Confederation were written and adopted by Congress in 1781 before the U.S constitution.
British general Charles Cornwallis joined forces in Virginia and surrendered to the combined forces of George Washington at Yorktown in October of 1781.
In 1783, the American revolutionary war terminated after signing the Peace of Paris that recognized the United States of America as an independent British colony.
Some of the critical reasons colonists justified the war are as mentioned below:
American colonies under Britain were primarily focused on farming due to readily available lands for cultivation.
Immigration from Britain and continental nations increased the population and dominated the natives of America.
As a part of the British colony, American territories were threatened by foreign invasion from France, so the French-Indian war broke out in 1763.
Britain viewed that it was not financially stable enough to support the warfare; hence, revenue collection was the only way to maintain economic stability.
Since the war was to safeguard American land, the British government contemplated that colonists would shoulder the cost of war.
The Stamp Act was enacted, which levied heavy tariffs on papers and legal documents found in American colonies.
Similarly, several regiments of British soldiers were to be kept in Northern America to enhance peace and security.
Anyone found guilty of Stamp Act violation was to be convicted without juries in the courts that were undoubtedly exertion of power by Britain.
Opponents such as Patric Henry gave his famous speech “give me liberty or give me death” in demur of the acts.
Limitations on Trade
Britain always had a colonial trade with its fellow colonies bound with restrictions and taxes on imports and exports.
Americans imported textiles and industrial goods from Britain and exported rice, tobacco, fish, and lumber.
Britain collected revenues by imposing taxes on exports and imports within American colonies after passing the Townshend Act, Sugar Act, and Molasses Act.
The Molasses Act imposed a tax per gallon of molasses from non-English colonies.
Likewise, the Sugar Act or the American Duties Act promised a half molasses tax, but strict enforcement made America’s lives miserable.
In 1773, the Boston Tea Party revolted against excessive tax on tea in the colonies as Americans disguised as Indianas dumped enormous tea into the sea.
Frustrated and angry American colonists threw 342 chests of tea imported by the British East India Company.
The British Crown forced taxation without any representation and consent of its colonies. Its primary motive was to collect revenue and cut out the colonies’ ability to perform any business independently.
No war credits to Colonies
The French and Indian war set in the 1750s was fought for seven years between Britain and France, providing Britain with vast lands to look after.
American colonists helped Britain during the warfare in response to which the British allowed high anatomical practices in America.
But involvement in multiple wars in different parts across the globe, Britain got into massive debt.
Hence, the British concluded that American colonists could enjoy their borders in Britain’s favor, so they had to cope with taxes.
Instead of giving credit for assistance in war, America did not get any dignity for the help.
Violation of People’s rights
King George III ruled Britain during the time the revolutionary war broke out. George was described as a man who refrained from passing the colonies’ laws in the American colonists’ parliament.
He cared less for Americans’ opinions and had settled judges for the judicial wings of his own will. Likewise, British armies were deployed in American colonies for seven years without their consent.
King George also passed laws against the desire of the American legislature that included restrictions in trade and business, depriving them of jury trials regarding smuggling and trade law violations.
Enslaved Americans who had joined British forces were promised freedom. However, the British Crown paid no heed to them and hired German mercenaries to fight against America.
Thus, American patriots accused Britain of domestic insurrections.
The Crown had even forced American sailors to work for the British navy despite their will, plundered their seas, and incinerated their towns.
The Quebec law extended Ohio towards the French region enacting French law in the region, hurting the sentiments of American patriots.
The essential exploitation of rights included charging enormous taxes on every item traded in and out of the colonies, which hindered their economic growth.
In contrast to the justification of the American Revolution, some argue that the actions performed by revolutionists were not justifiable. Some of the reasons supporting the idea are listed below:
Failure to maintain contract
Britain protected American colonies from the French invasion; as a result, it had to undergo a massive economic crash.
It passed laws to assert its dominance over its colonies which was considered a breach of virtues.
The Intolerable acts were meant to check the responsibilities of citizens who were not fulfilling their duties properly; however, American colonists termed it torture.
Britain, on its side, was trying to safeguard its people; meanwhile, the people backed off from paying taxes and started a revolt when the payment was requested.
Americans always neglected their end of the contract and blamed the British government for rationalizing its actions.
Britain tried to provide for its colonial people with true peace, protect their properties and contribute to representation via the entertainment of colonial ambassadors.
But Americans refused to pay for their partly responsible debts so that the American revolution might be justified.
Independence proved to be bad for native Americans
The native of America “Red Indians” were perceived as subjects of the Crown, similar to the colonists by the British Crown. However, colonists did not conceive of natives as fellow men.
Instead, colonists viewed the natives as an obstacle on the way to forming their new dreamland of wealth and ownership.
The Declaration of Independence reflected this ideology of colonists as they lashed King George for backing up native Indians.
The aboriginal people were mistreated, confining them to limited boundaries and restrictions on government policies.
Abolition would have come up earlier
The British government in the United States would have probably abolished slavery way earlier than the Americans with less bloodshed.
Even during the 1840s, slavery was regarded as an illegal act in Britain, while the United States implemented the Slavery Abolition Act much later.
American white men received more political power than females, natives, and enslaved people, while women and enslaved people were not disenfranchised in Britain.
The American Revolution was primarily based on opposition to the heavy tax imposed on American colonies after the seven-year-long French and Indian war.
Likewise, enslaved Americans and sailors were forcibly employed to join the British military regiments without their consent.
The attack on humankind was indeed not justifiable by the British Crown; however, the British parliament justified it as a failure of Americans to fulfill their portion of the contract.
They refused to pay for the cost of the war, which was fought to ensure their security.