The American Revolution was a 1775–83 insurgency. 13 of Great Britain’s North American colonies gained political independence and formed the United States of America.
The only British approach that worked was a guns-and-roses strategy. It included annihilating the rebel army, announcing amnesty, giving the colonies Parliamentary representation, allowing free trade without duties, and revoking the Proclamation of 1763 to open the West.
France’s problem would be America, and there would be less debt. The King may have dispatched a delegation to listen to the colonists’ complaints and propose solutions.
The war came after more than a decade of escalating hostility between the British crown and a substantial and vital portion of the British North American colonies. It was sparked by British attempts to gain greater control over colonial affairs after years of abandonment.
It was a civil war within the British Empire till early in 1778 when France joined the colonies in 1778 and Spain in 1779 in their fight against Britain.
Meanwhile, the Netherlands, which gave the United States official recognition and financial backing, fought Britain in its war.
Seapower was critical in shaping the war’s course from the start, allowing the British to adjust their tactics to compensate for the relatively small number of troops sent to America and, ultimately, allowing the French to aid in the final British capitulation of Yorktown.
What could have been done to prevent the American Revolution?
The American colonists were ecstatic after the Seven Years’ War. Suppose the British had not kept such a tight grip on the colonists, given their representation in parliament and the birthrights they so passionately desired.
In that case, the American Revolution might have been avoided.
What were the five measures passed by the British government that resulted in the American Revolutionary War in 1775?
The five measures were The Revenue Act of 1767, the Indemnity Act, the Commissioners of Customs Act, the Vice-Admiralty Court Act, and the New York Restraining Act.
How did the British government react to the American Revolution?
As their king, the British population was initially hostile to the colonial insurgents. After the Boston Tea Party, King George III sought harsher, more coercive tactics against the colonists, believing that lax British control was to blame for the rising tensions in North America.
Causes of the American Revolution
1. Early seeds
The English government wanted to restrict trade in the American colonies as early as 1651.
Parliament approved the Navigation Acts on October 9 to pursue a mercantilist policy that ensured trade enriched Great Britain while prohibiting trade with any other countries.
The Acts made it illegal for British producers to cultivate tobacco and encouraged shipbuilding, notably in the colonies of New England.
Some claim that the acts had a minor economic impact on the colonists. Still, the political repercussions were far more critical, as the most directly harmed merchants were also the most politically active.
However, subsequent English governments continued to try to tax particular items, creating laws controlling the trade in wool, hats, and molasses, among other things.
The Molasses Act of 1733 was particularly offensive to the colonists, as molasses was used in a substantial portion of colonial trade.
The taxes harmed the economy of New England and led to an increase in smuggling, bribery, and intimidation of customs agents. Colonial wars in America were also a source of significant tension.
During King George’s War, the British took Louisbourg, but it was returned to France in 1748.
New England colonists were enraged at the loss of life and the time and expense of conquering the castle to have it returned to their former adversary.
2. Taxes are imposed and withdrawn
The Sugar Act, passed in 1764, reduced previous customs charges on sugar and molasses while imposing more vigorous enforcement and collection mechanisms.
Prime Minister George Grenville recommended imposing taxes on the colonies to raise revenue the same year. Still, he postponed action until the colonies proposed a plan to raise revenue independently.
The Stamp Act, passed in March 1765, was the first time the colonies were exposed to direct taxation. The stamps were required on all official documents, newspapers, almanacs, and booklets, including decks of playing cards.
The colonists did not complain about the high taxes because they were deficient. They complained about their lack of representation in parliament, which left them without a say in legislation affecting them.
On the other hand, the crown had to cope with around 1,500 politically well-connected British Army commanders at the end of the recent conflict.
It was decided to maintain them on active duty with full pay, but they – and their commanding officers – needed to be stationed somewhere.
Because keeping a standing army in the United Kingdom during peacetime was politically impossible, the decision was taken to station them in America and have the Americans pay for them through the new tax.
The soldiers didn’t have a military mission; they weren’t there to defend the colonies because there wasn’t one at the time.
The Sons of Liberty were created soon after the Act was passed in 1765, and they employed public rallies, boycotts, and threats of violence to guarantee that British tax laws were unenforceable.
The Sons of Liberty burnt the vice-admiralty court’s archives and ransacked chief justice Thomas Hutchinson’s home in Boston.
In October, nine colonies sent delegates to the Stamp Act Congress in New York City, which was called by several legislatures.
Moderates led by John Dickinson drafted a Declaration of Rights and Grievances, claiming that taxes imposed without representation infringed on their rights as Englishmen, and colonists demonstrated their resolve by boycotting British goods.
3. Townshend Acts and the Tea Act
The Townshend Acts, approved in 1767, imposed charges on various staple items, such as paper, glass, tea, etc., and established a Board of Customs in Boston to enforce trade laws more strictly.
The new taxes were adopted based on the assumption that Americans primarily complained about internal taxes, not external ones like customs tariffs.
To protest the tariffs, colonists organized new boycotts of British products. However, because the items taxed by the Townshend Acts were widely used, these boycotts were ineffective.
The Massachusetts Bay Assembly sent a circular letter to the other colonies in February 1768, asking them to coordinate opposition. When the legislature refused to withdraw the letter, the governor dissolved it.
Meanwhile, in June 1768, a riot erupted in Boston over the seizure of John Hancock’s ship Liberty for supposed smuggling. The British dispatched troops to Boston after customs officials were forced to escape.
In 1770, a new government led by Lord North took power, and parliament repealed all taxes except the tea tax, abandoning its efforts to increase revenue while retaining the right to tax.
The problem was temporarily resolved, and the boycott of British products mostly ended, with only the most radical patriots like Samuel Adams continuing to campaign.
In the Gaspee Affair, in June 1772, American patriots, notably John Brown, set fire to a British warship that had been enforcing unpopular trade rules. A probable treason investigation was conducted, but no action was taken.
In 1772, it was revealed that the crown intended to pay regular salaries to Massachusetts governors and judges, which local governments had hitherto paid. This would decrease colonial representatives’ authority over their governments.
When the First Continental Congress resolved to boycott British goods, the colonial and local Committees took command, checking merchant records and publishing the names of merchants who tried to evade the boycott by bringing British goods into the country.
Meanwhile, the Tea Act was passed by parliament to reduce the price of taxed tea exported to the colonies, allowing the British East India Company to compete with smuggled Dutch tea.
To avoid colonial merchants, special consignees were appointed to sell the tea. Those opposed to the levies and smugglers who stood to lose business opposed the Act.
4. Intolerable Acts and the Quebec Act
The British government retaliated by adopting a series of laws known as the Intolerable Acts, which further soured colonial attitudes toward the British. They were made up of four pieces of legislation passed by the British parliament.
The Massachusetts Government Act, which changed the Massachusetts charter and limited town meetings, was the first.
The second legislation was the Administration of Justice Act, which mandated that all British soldiers facing trial be tried in the United Kingdom rather than in the colonies.
The Boston Port Act, the third Act, shut down Boston’s port until the British were reimbursed for the tea lost during the Boston Tea Party.
The Quartering Act of 1774 was the fourth Act, and it permitted royal governors to quarter British troops in citizens’ homes without the owner’s permission.
As a result, Massachusetts patriots released the Suffolk Resolves and established the Provincial Congress, an alternative shadow government that began training militia outside British-occupied Boston.
The First Continental Congress, comprised of members from each colony, met in September 1774 to serve as a forum for deliberation and collective action.
Conservative Joseph Galloway advocated the construction of a colonial Parliament that would be able to approve or disapprove of actions passed by the British Parliament during secret deliberations, but his proposal was rejected.
Instead, Congress-backed John Adams’ plan that Americans would cheerfully obey parliament while secretly resisting all taxes.
The Congress ordered a boycott of all British goods to begin on December 1, 1774, and new committees established by the Congress enforced it.
How could the American Revolution have been prevented?
The British government could have stopped the American Revolution in several ways.
1. The British authorities might have allowed colonists to choose their representatives.
Although the mother country, Great Britain, ruled the 13 colonies for a long time, colonists had no members in the British Parliament.
As a result, they frequently had difficulty communicating their grievances to the administration.
They asked the British government to provide American representation in the English Parliament on various occasions, but Britain consistently turned them down.
Since 1765, the problem has only become worse. After a series of critical events, it eventually culminated in the glorious American Revolution.
2. The British government could have prevented cruel acts against the Thirteen Colonies.
The British Parliament passed and imposed measures on the 13 colonies in 1764, 1765, 1767, 1773, and 1774, which enraged colonists to the maximum extent.
The five Intolerable Acts of 1774, in particular, prompted them to adopt the path of revolution and consider total independence.
These are the five cruel acts:
· Boston Port Act
· Massachusetts Government Act
· Administration of Justice
· Quebec Act
· Quartering Act
3. The British authority could have accepted negotiation proposals.
During the First and Second Continental Congresses, American colonies submitted to British King George III and Parliament some negotiation offers.
Two of these are the Petition to the King and the Olive Branch Petition. Accepting these recommendations would have addressed the situation for the British government. However, they showed little interest in them in actuality.
Even King George III of the United Kingdom refused to read the Olive Branch Petition, declaring colonists traitors.
Almost definitely, the Revolutionary War might have been avoided. Benjamin Franklin spent several years in London attempting to accomplish this goal.
It may have been avoided if the British administration had given the colonists representation in parliament, even if it was only symbolic representation. The Americans declared, “Taxation without representation is tyranny!”
However, the British did not do so (and British colonies still do not have representation in parliament, although we now refer to them as “British Overseas Territories”).
Gibraltar, the Falkland Islands, and Montserrat are all without representation. This was a terrible decision that would have cost them nothing to carry out.
The limitation on commerce with France was another point of controversy. Although France was a key market for American commodities, particularly food, Britain desired to retain all American trade.
The colonists didn’t enjoy the enforced monopoly they had to deal with because they were British colonies defended by British tax money. France was a historic adversary, but it wasn’t wholly unjustified.
Then there was King George III’s Proclamation of 1763, which prohibited colonial expansion west of the Alleghenies and into an area considered to be Native American land.
Whether there were Indians or not, the colonists desired this land. It’s conceivable that this issue was not rectified. King George took his treaty obligations to the indigenous peoples very seriously.
The Americans saw him as an absentee landlord who, from his palace in London, imposed restrictions on their affluence and possibilities in favor of a gang of Stone Age savages. That disagreement might have been settled if the king had backed down.
According to popular belief, the revolution had little to do with liberty and even less with guns. It was primarily motivated by a tax revolt.
If Britain had been able to buy French neutrality, it might have been able to prevail. Because it stopped the British fleet from resupplying the British army, France played a crucial role in the triumph of the United States.
If Cornwallis had been able to contact the British fleet, he would not have had to surrender at Yorktown. The British might have won if the French had kept out of it.